This study assesses the impact of a tax incentive scheme to boost private rental investment in force in France from 2009 to 2012, called the “Scellier scheme” (after the name of the minister who promoted it), on changes in the price of building land. A difference in differences estimation is implemented, drawing on data from the BNDP database covering the period 2004 2010.
Most enlightenment philosophers argued that the separation between Church and State would prevent capture of resources by one state religion. We formalize and test a theory that addresses a different danger. We demonstrate that a reduction in the separation between Church and State can be corrosive to political institutions, especially the Judiciary.
Clonostachys saulensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a collection on bark of dead liana in French Guiana. this species is placed in Clonostachys (= Bionectria) based on its clonostachys-like asexual morph, ascomata not changing colour in 3% Koh or lactic acid and phylogenetic comparison of itS sequences with known species of Clonostachys.
Computational optimization algorithms coupled with acoustic models of wind instruments provide instrument makers an opportunity to explore new designs. Specifically, they give the possibility to automatically find geometries exhibiting desired resonance characteristics. In this paper, the design optimization of woodwind instruments with complex geometrical features (e.g., non-cylindrical bore profile and side holes with various radii and chimney heights) is investigated.
This paper introduces a local multilevel mesh refinement strategy that automatically stops relating to a user-defined tolerance even incase of local singular solutions. Refinement levels are automatically generated thanks to a criterion based on the direct comparison of the a posteriori error estimate with the prescribed error. Singular solutions locally increase with the mesh step (e.g.
In the pressure vessel of a PWR, the core is filled of up to 241 fuel assemblies. Under operation, they are subjected to irradiation growth, creeping, tightening relaxation and rod slipping. Combined with the hydraulic forces induced by the coolant flow, these phenomena lead to assembly lateral deformation. Between two operating cycles, when changing the assembly position in the core, this deformation may sometime create difficulties with regard to handling operations.
In this paper, we consider competitive polluting firms that outsource their abatement activity to an upstream imperfect competitive eco-industry to comply with environmental regulation. In this case, we show that an usual environmental policy based on a Pigouvian tax or a pollution permit market reaches the first-best outcome.
To model the mechanical response of rate-dependent elasto-viscoplastic (or equivalently non-linear viscoelastic) particulate composites, the proposed approach consists in linearizing the (nonlinear) relation between the viscous strain rate and the stress. To obtain a tractable problem, the linearized properties (viscous modulus, stress-free strain rate) are chosen uniform per phase: in each phase, they are computed for reference stresses per phase.
TIP curves are cumulative poverty gap curves used for representing the three different aspects of poverty: incidence, intensity and inequality. The paper provides Bayesian inference for TIP curves, linking their expression to a parametric representation of the income distribution using a mixture of log-normal densities. We treat specifically the question of zero-inflated income data and survey weights, which are two important issues in survey analysis.
The promotion system for French academic economists provides an interesting environment to examine the promotion gap between men and women. Promotions occur through national competitions for which we have information both on candidates and on those eligible to be candidates. Thus, we can examine the two stages of the process: application and success. Women are less likely to seek promotion, and this accounts for up to 76 percent of the promotion gap.