Sound wave propagation in a shallow water environment is complex due to e.g. the uncertainties of sound speed profile being inhomogeneous and imprecisely measured, the bottom reflections, etc. The propagation and influence of several uncertainty parameters are quantified in this paper. A four-layer model, which can approximately represent a wide range of shallow water environments, is considered; six parameters representing sound speed profile and water depth are considered as random variables.
Bilateral bargaining between a multiple-worker firm and individual employees leads to overhiring. With a concave production function, the firm can reduce the marginal product by hiring an additional worker, thereby reducing the bargaining wage paid to all existing employees. We show that this externality is amplified when firms can adjust hours per worker as well as employment. Firms keep down workers’ wage demands by reducing the number of hours per worker and the resulting labor disutility.
This paper focuses on the role of polarization-and more specifically, the effect of its selection-in 3D quantitative imaging obtained from scattered field measurements. Although polarization is now commonly used in linear imaging procedures (when unknowns are linked by a linear relationship to the measured signal), the influence of polarization choice is generally ignored in nonlinear imaging problems.
We study the determination of public tuition fees through majority voting in a vertical differentiation model where agents' returns on educational investment differ and public and private universities coexist and compete in tuition fees. The private university offers higher educational quality than its competitor, incurring higher unit cost per trained student. The tuition fee for the state university is fixed by majority voting while that for the private follows from profit maximization.
Alternative energy strategies based on plant biomass-derived bioenergy and biofuels rely on understanding and optimization of plant structure, chemistry, and performance. Starch, a constitutive element of all green plants, is important to food, biofuels, and industrial applications. Models of carbohydrate storage granules are highly heterogeneous in representing morphology and structure, though a deeper understanding of the role of structure in functional behavior is emerging.
In the aftermath of the U.S. financial crisis, both a sharp drop in employment and a surge in corporate cash have been observed. In this paper, based on U.S. data, we argue that the negative relationship between the corporate cash ratio and employment is systematic, both over time and across firms. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model where heterogenous firms need cash and external liquid funds in their production process.
The aim of this paper is to study the interplay between long term productive investments and more short term and liquid speculative ones. A three-period lived overlapping generations model allows us to make this distinction. Agents have a portfolio decision. When young, they can invest in human capital that is a productive long term investment that provides a return during the following two periods. When young or in the middle age, they can invest in a bubble.
In this paper, we describe Fourier-based Wave Front Sensors (WFS) as linear integral operators, characterized by their Kernel. In a first part, we derive the dependency of this quantity with respect to the WFS's optical parameters: pupil geometry, filtering mask, tip/tilt modulation. In a second part we focus the study on the special case of convolutional Kernels. The assumptions required to be in such a regime are described.
Price reviews are a potentially costly activity. A significant fraction of unchanged prices may stem from firms not reviewing prices, rather than from obstacles to changing prices per se, such as menu costs. In this paper, we disentangle these two causes of price stickiness by estimating an inflated ordered probit model on a panel of French manufacturing firms.
In a universe of arbitrary spacetime geometry, we introduce a referential centered at the observer that constitutes a consistent representation of its environment and in which he performs measurements. We postulate some natural rules applying in this representation referential, that match our everyday experience of the physical world.