Xylanases are hemicellulolytic enzymes, which are responsible for the degradation of heteroxylans constituting the lignocellulosic plant cell wall. Xylanases from the GH11 family are considered as true xylanases because of their high substrate specificity.
In two-player games with negative (positive) spillovers it is well-known that symmetric agents both overact (underact) at the Nash equilibria. We show that for heterogeneous agents this rule of thumb has to be amended if the game features strategic substitutability.
Understanding the evolutionary plasticity of the genome requires a global, comparative approach in which genetic events are considered both in a phylogenetic framework and with regard to population genetics and environmental variables. In the mechanisms that generate adaptive and non-adaptive changes in genomes, segmental duplications (duplication of individual genes or genomic regions) and polyploidization (whole genome duplications) are well-known driving forces.
While the Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase (PcL) is one of the most promising high-redox-potential enzymes for environmental biocatalysis, its practical use has to date remained limited due to the lack of directed evolution platforms with which to improve its features. Here, we describe the construction of a PcL fusion gene and the optimization of conditions to induce its functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, facilitating its directed evolution and semirational engineering.
We investigate the effects of active wake-jets (characterized by a dimensionless jet momentum coefficient C μ) on the suppression of aerodynamic forces and the manipulation of wake flow topology behind a cylindrical model through wind tunnel tests. The active jets are positioned at the rear stagnation points of the cylindrical test model. The experimental campaign is conducted at a subcritical Reynolds number of = × Re 3.33 10 4.
Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase and a chimeric laccase-CBM were applied in softwood kraft pulp biobleaching in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). The presence of CBM could enhance the laccase biobleaching potential as a decrease in the enzymatic charge and chlorine dioxide consumption, as well as an increase in pulp brightness were observed. Laccase/HBT treatment could be improved by increasing oxygen pressure from 1 to 3bar and pulp consistency from 5% to 10%.
Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes maintain a biotrophic relationship with their hosts over a period of several weeks and induce the differentiation of root cells into specialized feeding cells. Nematode effectors, which are synthesized in the esophageal glands and injected into the plant tissue through the syringe-like stylet, play a central role in these processes.
Ruminococcus gnavus belongs to the 57 most common species present in 90% of individuals. Previously, we identified an α-galactosidase (Aga1) belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 36 from R. gnavus E1 (M. Aguilera, H. Rakotoarivonina, A. Brutus, T. Giardina, G. Simon, and M. Fons, Res. Microbiol. 163:14-21, 2012). Here, we identified a novel GH36-encoding gene from the same strain and termed it aga2.
Background: Mitochondria mediate most of the energy production that occurs in the majority of eukaryotic organisms. These subcellular organelles contain a genome that differs from the nuclear genome and is referred to as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite a disparity in gene content, all mtDNAs encode at least two components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, including cytochrome c oxidase I (Cox1).
Background: Enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass is a known bottleneck for the production of high-value molecules and biofuels from renewable sources. Filamentous fungi are the predominant natural source of enzymes acting on lignocellulose. We describe the extraordinary cellulose-deconstructing capacity of the basidiomycete Laetisaria arvalis, a soil-inhabiting fungus. Results: The L.