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This dissertation focuses on cyclization reactions of 1,6-enynes involving ruthenium catalysts. Three different types of cyclization were developed from readily available precursors, such as 1,6-enynes and alkynes. In one application, a novel ruthenium-catalyzed hydroalkynylative cyclization of 1,6-enynes using terminal alkynes as co-reactants was explored. This reaction provides and entry to five-membered rings featuring an exocyclic 1,5-enyne motif.
We propose an approach based on geometric phase for performing several types of shearing interfer-ometry through a robust, compact, common-path setup. The key elements are two identical parallel plates with spatially-varying birefringence distributions , which perform the shearing by writing opposite geometric phases on the two circular polarization components of the linearly polarized incident wavefront.
A recent strand of papers use sharp regression discontinuity designs (RDD) based on age discontinuity to study the impacts of minimum income and unemployment insurance benefit extension policies. This design challenges job search theory, which predicts that such RDD estimates are biased. Owing to market frictions, people below the age threshold account for future eligibility to the policy. This progressively affects their search outcomes as they get closer to entitlement.